The two letter domains, such as .fr (France), .uk (United Kingdom) and .jp (Japan), are called domain names of first level geography (ccTLDs, country code Top Level Domain) and correspond to a country, territory, or other geographic location.
The rules and policies for the domain names registration in the ccTLDs vary significantly and ccTLD registries limit the use of ccTLD to citizens of the corresponding country.
A generic Top Level Domain (English generic Top-Level Domain or gTLD) is a top level domain created to accommodate subdomains with a common characteristic other than geographical. For example, .com is intended to accommodate commercial type of subdomains (at least that was the original case, and now this area is open to all).
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